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Concepts of National Competitiveness

Thomas Berger


Today, many governments follow a strategy of national competitiveness for fostering economic development. However, there is no accepted theory of national competitiveness but just different concepts behind these policies. This article aims to provide an overview of the different concepts of national competitiveness, starting with a look at firm level competitiveness. The article distinguishes between four special concepts of national competitiveness and approaches of competitive advantage. It is argued that national competitiveness should be seen as a relative rather than an absolute concept that allows for a benchmarking of nations.


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